The Attachment theory is the focal point of understanding the physically and emotional relationships among individuals that starts off with the first interactive love relationship that usually involves a primary caregiver as an infant which is usually your mother. Within the Attachment Theory it is the mother/child bond that develops the infant’s brain development to create self-esteem, how you view others, ability to trust and how to eventually develop a successful adult relationship.
Parents that are present, dependable and responsive to the needs of the child allow them to build up a sense of safety which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world. Attachment Theory has giving us the ability to comprehend child development. Each child develops different attachment styles according to their exposure and relationships coming from their parents.
There are four different types of attachment styles have been recognized in children which are Secure, Resistant, Avoidant, and Disorganized/ Disoriented Attachment and they all that have been helpful in the study of child behavior in the child development and mental health fields. “The infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment” (Bretheron, 1992). A mother who displays sensitive and is responsive to their child can make them feel positive and loved which creates a Secure Attachment.
When a child that is comfortably attached to their parent can explore and interact with other people while the mother is in the same room but will be upset and unresponsive when mother leaves and will not interact with the people if parents is not in the room. Inconsistency can create a child who can feel angry, resentful or confused which can lead to Resistant Attachment. A child experiencing resistant attachment is extremely distress of the thought of separation between their parents. A child will be very hesitant to explore new surrounding or new people regardless if the parent is present.
A child will be clingy and rejecting the parent on return into the room and will have thoughts of resentment. A child that feels unloved, rejected and is unaware by mother’s absence is Avoidant Attachment. A child will keep away from the parent and will not explore or interact very much regardless who is in the room and unresponsive when the parent leaves or returns into a room. Unfamiliar people are not treated any special than their parent, a child has no emotional connection in spite of who is in the room or if it is empty. A typical attachment style when a child is abused or neglected is Disorganized/ Disoriented Attachment.
The child’s feels insecure with the parent’s relationship which creates confusion and inconsistent with coping patterns. Child displays strange behaviors such as rocking or freezing when the child reunites with their mother. Cultural variations on how a relationship between a mother and infant are likely to affect the type of attachment relationship created and the differences between parent and child relationships in Japan and the United States are childrearing beliefs, home environment, newborn behavior, mother infant interaction and maternal speech to infants and mother pre-schooler interactions.
Japanese believe that during infancy that children are naturally good and that their children have innate tendencies that cannot and shouldn’t be remolded by their parent. Directing and controlling infant’s and children’s behavior is the ideal of good parenting in many non-Western cultural environments (Keller, 2012). Awareness and compassion are encouraged to a closer dependency on the mother and to control infant emotions. In Japan, they focus more on a pleasant relationship between parent and infant and a parent should cater to every basic need of the infant.
Parents ught to prepare their child when they are ready, because untimely guidance can slow down any positive growth within the children. Japanese mothers are completely committed to their roles as a mother, even when it jeopardizes the expense of her additional roles such as wife, friend and employee. In comparison, the United States view infancy development differently as children are seen as needing to learn how to socialize at an early age. Attachment issues come up because of sensitive and responsiveness too caring for the development of independence and autonomy.
Americans believe that children should be able to become skilled at obeying the projected norms of behaviors despite of the impact of the emotional connection. Physical and emotional independence ought to be accomplished as early as possible even if the child rejects it. With a completely different view than Japanese mother, American women are held to the expectation of finding the balance motherhood against other roles including those of wife, friend and employee.
Most parents find the transition to childhood very difficult and create the mistake of overlooking the child’s needs to stay connected, assert independence and exploring the environment. Unfortunately, controlling a child rather than setting limits and boundaries with understanding and focusing on the relationship can have an outcome of an uncooperative child. Early Childhood in Japan, preparation in social and moral behavior should come after a period of infant development and Japanese believe that the liability for such guidance is a combination of the community and society and not the child parents.
Adults rarely punish or praise, but rather allow child to self regulate performance out of desire to conform. Dependency is more desirable in the Japanese culture; closeness and interdependence are both classified in the west as undesirable anxious-resistant characteristics. In Japan, mothers very rarely allow others to look after their child, which may help explain why Japanese infants tend to display the greatest levels of resistant attachment (Miyake, Chen, and
Campos, 1985) In the United States, we believe that in early childhood development our children have the needs that consist of continuing obedience and guidance. Parents teach their children at a very early age that they need to have the ability to do an array of tasks and chores. Japanese culture believes that preparation in social and moral behavior is society’s job but American’s seen it as the duty of the family to guide their children into social and moral norms. Determining a child’s growth is controlled through adult guidance in the form of positive reinforcement and punishment for negative behaviors.
Americans believe that a healthy relationship and attachment with a child consist of a secure base, encouraging exploration and eventual individuation. Parents are dependably nurturing and protective and children build a sense of security to proceed with the next developmental stage of their life. Regardless of connection with child and parent, children need to develop the ability to explore what’s around them without being overprotected and take initiative without being over-controlled.